900

901 - 000

Turkey emerged from the collapse of the Ottoman Empire after World War I ( 1914 – 1918 ).  Unlike most Middle Eastern countries, Turkey won its independence soon after the war and quickly developed into a modernized state based on Western political models.  

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DATE LAST EDITED:  07-2019

902 - 000

Beginning in 2013, it became increasingly clear that al-Qaida and the Islamic State were deeply divided over ideology, each representing a competing strand of the ideological movement known as Jihadi Salafism (al- salafiyya al-jihadiyya).  As the Islamic State of Iraq restyled itself the Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham, then the Islamic State in full caliphal garb, its ties with al-Qaida unraveled and the ideological fissures in Jihadi Salafism, once held in abeyance, came rushing to the fore.

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DATE LAST EDITED:  07-2019 

903 - 000

The Ottoman Empire was created by a series of conquests carried out between the early fourteenth and late sixteenth centuries by ten successive capable rulers of the Ottoman Turkish dynasty.  

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DATE LAST EDITED:  07-2019 

904 - 000

The Spread Of Islam:

The Rise Of Islamic Empires

 And States

The Arab conquests started as sporadic tribal raids.  A proper army was probably not organized before 634, but once formed, it made expeditions eastwards towards the Sasanian empire and northwards to Palestine and Syria against the Byzantine empire.

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DATE LAST EDITED:  07-2019

905 - 000

The Globalization


Of Islam

Until recently many Europeans and North Americans tended to identify Islam with the Arabs.  More knowledgeable scholars added parts of Asia and Africa to the abode of Islam.  Other scholars were reluctant to admit that not only is Islam a universal religion with adherents throughout the globe, but that it has increasingly become part and parcel of the West.  Ignoring “the facts on the ground,” they persist in thinking of Muslims as displaced persons temporarily residing in the West, who will one day pack up and return to where they came from or to “where they belong.”  Still others, who for religious or political reasons wish away these Muslim immigrants, have become more shrill in declaring their presence a threat.

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DATE LAST EDITED:  03-2020