802-3

802 - 001

The Greater Crusades


The Tenth Crusade

(Alexandrian Crusade) (1365)

The brief Alexandrian Crusade, also called the sack of Alexandria, occurred in October 1365 and was led by Peter I of Cyprus against Alexandria in Egypt.  Relatively devoid of religious impetus, it differs from the more prominent Crusades in that it seems to have been motivated largely by economic interests.

DATE LAST EDITED:  04 – 2020

802 - 002

The Lesser Crusades

Children’s Crusade

The Children’s Crusade was a failed popular crusade by European Christians to regain the Holy Land from the Muslims, said to have taken place in 1212.  The crusaders left areas of Northern France, led by Stephen of Cloyes, and Germany, led by Nicholas.  

DATE LAST EDITED: 08-2019  

802 - 003

The Lesser Crusades


Norwegian Crusade

The Norwegian Crusade, led by Norwegian King Sigurd I, was a crusade or a pilgrimage (sources differ) that lasted from 1107 to 1111, in the aftermath of the First Crusade.  The Norwegian Crusade marks the first time a European king personally went to the Holy Land.

DATE LAST EDITED:08-2019   

802 - 004

The Lesser Crusades

Crusade of 1101

The Crusade of 1101 was a minor crusade of three separate movements, organized in 1100 and 1101 in the successful aftermath of the First Crusade.  It is also called the Crusade of the Faint-Hearted due to the number of participants who joined this crusade after having turned back from the First Crusade.

DATE LAST EDITED:  09-2019 

802 - 005

The Lesser Crusades

Venetian Crusade

The Venetian Crusade of 1122–24 was an expedition to the Holy Land launched by the Republic of Venice that succeeded in capturing Tyre. It was an important victory at the start of a period when the Kingdom of Jerusalem would expand to its greatest extent under King Baldwin II.  The Venetians gained valuable trading concessions in Tyre.  

DATE LAST EDITED:  09-2019 

802 - 006

The Lesser Crusades


Crusade Of 1197

The Crusade of 1197, also known as the Crusade of Henry VI (German: Kreuzzug Heinrichs VI.) or the German Crusade (Deutscher Kreuzzug) was a crusade launched by the Hohenstaufen emperor Henry VI in response to the aborted attempt of his father, Emperor Frederick Barbarossa during the Third Crusade in 1189–90.  Thus the military campaign is also known as the “Emperor’s Crusade” (echoing the name “Kings’ Crusade” given to the Third Crusade).

DATE LAST EDITED:  09-2019 

802 - 007

The Lesser Crusades

Call For Crusade

During the Holy Week (March) of 1195, Emperor Henry made a pledge and at the Easter celebrations in Bari publicly announced the Crusade.  Henry’s original plan in April 1195 was for a force of 1,500 knights and 3,000 sergeants, but this total would be exceeded.  In the summer he was travelling through Germany in order to gain supporters.  Despite the stalemate of the Third Crusade, a large number of the nobles responded.

DATE LAST EDITED:  09-2019 

802 - 008

The Lesser Crusades

Barons' Crusade

 

The Barons’ Crusade, also called the Crusade of 1239, was in territorial terms the most successful crusade since the First.  Called by Pope Gregory IX, the Barons’ Crusade broadly spanned from 1234-1241 and embodied the highest point of papal endeavor “to make crusading a universal Christian undertaking.”  Gregory called for a crusade in France, England, and Hungary with different degrees of success. Although the crusaders did not achieve any glorious military victories, they used diplomacy to successfully play the two warring factions of the Muslim Ayyubid dynasty (As-Salih Ismail in Damascus and As-Salih Ayyub in Egypt) against one another for even more concessions than Frederick II gained during the more well-known Sixth Crusade.  For a few years, the Barons’ Crusade returned the Kingdom of Jerusalem to its largest size since 1187.

DATE LAST EDITED:  09-2019 

802 - 009

The Lesser Crusades

Smyrniote Crusades

The Smyrniote crusades (1343–1351) were two Crusades sent by Pope Clement VI against the Emirate of Aydin under Umur Beg which had as their principal target the coastal city of Smyrna in Asia Minor.

DATE LAST EDITED:  09-2019 

802 - 010

The Lesser Crusades

Alexandrian Crusade

The brief Alexandrian Crusade, also called the sack of Alexandria, occurred in October 1365 and was led by Peter I of Cyprus against Alexandria in Egypt.  Relatively devoid of religious impetus, it differs from the more prominent Crusades in that it seems to have been motivated largely by economic interests.

DATE LAST EDITED:  09-2019 

802 - 011

The Lesser Crusades

Savoyard Crusade

The Savoyard crusade was a crusading expedition to the Balkans in 1366–67. It was born out of the same planning that led to the Alexandrian Crusade and was the brainchild of Pope Urban V.  It was led by Amadeus VI, Count of Savoy, and directed against the growing Ottoman Empire in eastern Europe.  Although intended as a collaboration with the Kingdom of Hungary and the Byzantine Empire, the crusade was diverted from its main purpose to attack the Second Bulgarian Empire.  There the crusaders made small gains that they handed over to the Byzantines.  It did take back some territory the Ottomans in the vicinity of Constantinople and on Gallipoli.

DATE LAST EDITED:  09-2019 

802 - 012

The Lesser Crusades

Barbary Crusade

The Barbary Crusade, also called the Mahdia Crusade, was a Franco-Genoese military expedition in 1390 that led to the siege of Mahdia, then a stronghold of the Barbary pirates in Hafsidi Tunisia.  Froissart’s Chronicles is the chief account of what was one of the last crusades.

DATE LAST EDITED:  09-2019 

802 - 013

The Lesser Crusades

Battle Of Nicopolis

The Battle of Nicopolis took place on 25 September 1396 and resulted in the rout of an allied crusader army of Hungarian, Croatian, Bulgarian, Wallachian, French, English, Burgundian, German and assorted troops (assisted by the Venetian navy) at the hands of an Ottoman force, raising of the siege of the Danubian fortress of Nicopolis and leading to the end of the Second Bulgarian Empire.  It is often referred to as the Crusade of Nicopolis as it was one of the last large-scale Crusades of the Middle Ages, together with the Crusade of Varna in 1443–1444.

DATE LAST EDITED:  09-2019 

802 - 014

The Lesser Crusades

Crusade Of Varna

The Crusade of Varna was an unsuccessful military campaign mounted by several European monarchs to check the expansion of the Ottoman Empire into Central Europe, specifically the Balkans between 1443 and 1444.  It was called by Pope Eugene IV on 1 January 1443 and led by King Władysław III of Poland, John Hunyadi, Voivode of Transylvania, and Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy.

DATE LAST EDITED:  09-2019 

802 - 015

The Lesser Crusades

Portuguese Expedition To Otranto

 

The Portuguese expedition to Otranto in 1481, which the Portuguese call the Turkish Crusade (Portuguese: Cruzada Turca), arrived too late to participate in any fighting.  On 8 April 1481, Pope Sixtus IV issued the papal bull Cogimur iubente altissimo, in which he called for a crusade against the Turks, who occupied Otranto in southern Italy. The Pope’s intention was that, after recapturing Otranto, the crusaders would cross the Adriatic and liberate Vlorë (Valona) as well.  Portugal decided to send a squadron into Otranto under command of the bishop of Évora, Garcia de Meneses. 

DATE LAST EDITED:  09-2019 

802 - 016

The Lesser Crusades


Northern Crusades

The Northern Crusades or Baltic Crusades were religious wars undertaken by Catholic Christian military orders and kingdoms, primarily against the pagan Baltic, Finnic and West Slavic peoples around the southern and eastern shores of the Baltic Sea, and to a lesser extent also against Orthodox Christian Slavs (East Slavs).  The crusades took place mostly in the 12th and 13th centuries and resulted in the mass extermination, subjugation and forced baptism of indigenous peoples.

DATE LAST EDITED:  09-2019 

802 - 017

The Lesser Crusades


Wendish Crusade

The Wendish Crusade (German: Wendenkreuzzug) was a military campaign in 1147, one of the Northern Crusades and a part of the Second Crusade, led primarily by the Kingdom of Germany within the Holy Roman Empire and directed against the Polabian Slavs (or “Wends”).  The Wends are made up of the Slavic tribes of Abrotrites, Rani, Liutizians, Wagarians, and Pomeranians who lived east of the River Elbe in present-day northeast Germany and Poland.

DATE LAST EDITED:  09-2019 

802 - 018

The Lesser Crusades

First Swedish Crusade

The First Swedish Crusade was a mythical military expedition in 1150s to Southwest Finland by Swedish King Eric IX and English Bishop Henry of Uppsala.

DATE LAST EDITED:  09-2019 

802 - 019

The Lesser Crusades

Second Swedish Crusade

The Second Swedish Crusade was a possible 13th-century Swedish military expedition against the Tavastians, in present-day Finland, led by Birger jarl.  A lot of the details of the Crusade are debated.  After the crusade Tavastia gradually started to fall under the rule of Catholic Church and Swedish kingdom.

DATE LAST EDITED:  09-2019 

802 - 020

The Lesser Crusades

Third Swedish Crusade

The Third Swedish Crusade to Finland was a Swedish military expedition against the pagan Karelians in 1293.  It followed the mythical First Crusade and the Second Crusade to Finland.  Viborg Castle was established in 1293 on the site of destroyed Karelian fort as the easternmost outpost of the medieval Kingdom of Sweden.  After the crusade Western Karelia remained under Swedish rule until Treaty of Nystad in 1721.

 

DATE LAST EDITED:  09-2019 

802 - 021

The Lesser Crusades

Livonian Crusade

The Livonian Crusade was the conquest of the territory constituting modern Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia during the pope-sanctioned Northern Crusades, performed mostly by Germans from the Holy Roman Empire and Danes.  It ended with the creation of the Terra Mariana and Duchy of Estonia.  The lands on the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea were the last corners of Europe to be Christianized.

DATE LAST EDITED: 09-2019  

802 - 022

The Lesser Crusades

Prussian Crusade

The Prussian Crusade was a series of 13th-century campaigns of Roman Catholic crusaders, primarily led by the Teutonic Knights, to subjugate and exterminate or, alternatively, Christianize under duress the pagan Old Prussians.  Invited after earlier unsuccessful expeditions against the Prussians by Christian Polish kings, the Teutonic Knights began campaigning against the Prussians, Lithuanians and Samogitians in 1230. By the end of the century, having quelled several Prussian Uprisings, the Knights had established control over Prussia and administered the conquered Prussians through their monastic state, eventually erasing the Prussian language, culture and pre-Christian religion by a combination of physical and ideological force.  The remainder of the Prussians who escaped mass extermination joined the Lithuanian nation.

DATE LAST EDITED:  802 – 023

802 - 023

The Lesser Crusades


Battle In The Ice

The Battle on the Ice was fought between the Republic of Novgorod led by prince Alexande Nevsky and the forces of Livonian Order and Bishopric of Dorpat led by bishop Hermann of Dorpat on April 5, 1242, at Lake Peipus.  The battle is notable for having been fought largely on the frozen lake, and this gave the battle its name.

DATE LAST EDITED:  04 – 2020

802 - 024

The Lesser Crusades

Lithuanian Crusade

The Lithuanian Crusade was a series of campaigns by the Teutonic Order and the Livonian Order, two crusading military orders, to convert the pagan Grand Duchy of Lithuania to Roman Catholicism.  The Livonian Order settled in Riga in 1202 and the Teutonic Order arrived to Culmerland in 1230s.  They first conquered other neighboring Baltic tribes – Curonians, Semigallians, Latgalians, Selonians, Old Prussians.

DATE LAST EDITED:  09-2019 

802 - 025

The Lesser Crusades


Popular Crusades

The popular crusades were several movements “animated by crusading enthusiasm” but unsanctioned by the Church.  They contrast with the “official crusades” authorized by the Papacy.  While the latter consisted of professional armies led by apostolic legates, the popular crusades were generally disorganized and consisted of peasants, artisans and only the occasional knight.  

DATE LAST EDITED: 09-2019  

802 - 026

The Lesser Crusades

People’s Crusade

The People’s Crusade was a popular crusade.  It lasted roughly six months from April to October 1096 and was a prelude to the First Crusade.  It is also known as the Peasants’ Crusade, Paupers’ Crusade or the Popular Crusade as it was not part of the official Catholic Church-Organized expeditions that came later.  

DATE LAST EDITED:  09-2019 

802 - 027

The Lesser Crusade

Children’s Crusade

The Shepherds’ Crusade of 1251 was a popular crusading movement in northern France aimed at rescuing King Louis IX during the Seventh Crusade.

DATE LAST EDITED:  09-2019 

802 - 028

The Lesser Crusades


Crusade Of The Poor

The Crusade of the Poor was an unauthorized military expedition — one of the so-called “popular crusades” — undertaken in the spring and summer of 1309 by members of the lower classes from England, Brabant, northern France and the German Rhineland.  Responding to an appeal for support for a crusade to the Holy Land, the men, overwhelmingly poor, marched to join a small professional army being assembled with Papal approval.  

DATE LAST EDITED:  09-2019 

802 - 029

The Lesser Crusades


Official Crusade

On 4 November 1309, Pope Clement admitted what had long been suspected, that the Hospitaller expedition would not go to the Holy Land.  It was merely a preparatory campaign to help defend Cyprus and enforce the prohibition on Catholics trading with Muslims.  The official expedition was ready to sail from the Italian port of Brindisi in January 1310, but was delayed until spring by bad weather.  

 

DATE LAST EDITED: 09-2019  

802 - 030

The Lesser Crusades

 Shepherds' Crusade

The Shepherds’ Crusade of 1320 was a popular crusading movement in northern France.  Initially aiming to help the Reconquista of Iberia, it failed to gain support from the church or nobility and instead murdered hundreds of Jews in France and Aragon.

DATE LAST EDITED:  09-2019 

802 - 031

The Lesser Crusades


Crusades Against Christians

The Bosnian Crusade was fought against unspecified heretics from 1235 until 1241.  It was, essentially, a Hungarian war of conquest against the Banate of Bosnia sanctioned as a crusade.  Led by the Hungarian prince Coloman, the crusaders only succeeded in conquering peripheral parts of the country.  They were followed by Dominicans, who erected a cathedral and put heretics to death by burning.  The crusade came to an abrupt end when Hungary itself was invaded by Tatars.  The crusaders were forced to withdraw and engage their own invaders, most of them perishing, including Coloman.

DATE LAST EDITED:  09-2019 

802 - 032

The Lesser Crusades


Albigensian Crusade

The Albigensian Crusade or the Cathar Crusade (1209–1229) was a 20-year military campaign initiated by Pope Innocent III to eliminate Catharism in Languedoc, in southern France.  The Crusade was prosecuted primarily by the French crown and promptly took on a political flavor, resulting in not only a significant reduction in the number of practicing Cathars, but also a realignment of the County of Toulouse in Languedoc, bringing it into the sphere of the French crown and diminishing the distinct regional culture and high level of influence of the Counts of Barcelona.

DATE LAST EDITED:  09-2019 

802 - 033

The Lesser Crusades


Aragonese Crusade

The Aragonese Crusade or Crusade of Aragon, a part of the larger War of the Sicilian Vespers, was declared by Pope Martin IV against the King of Aragon, Peter III the Great, in 1284 and 1285.  Because of the recent conquest of Sicily by Peter, the Pope declared a crusade against him and officially deposed him as king, on the grounds that Aragon was a papal fief: Peter’s grandfather and namesake, Peter II, had surrendered the kingdom as a fief to the Holy See.  Martin bestowed Aragon on Charles, Count of Valois, son of the French king, Philip III, and nephew of Peter III.

DATE LAST EDITED:  09-2019 

802 - 034

The Lesser Crusades


Despenser's Crusade

Despenser’s Crusade (or the Bishop of Norwich’s Crusade, sometimes just Norwich Crusade) was a military expedition led by the English bishop Henry le Despenser in 1383 that aimed to assist the city of Ghent in its struggle against the supporters of Antipope Clement VII.  It took place during the great Papal schism and the Hundred Years’ War between England and France. While France supported Clement, whose court was based in Avignon, the English supported Pope Urban VI in Rome.

DATE LAST EDITED:  09-2019

802 - 035

The Lesser Crusades



Hussite Wars

The Hussite Wars, also called the Bohemian Wars or the Hussite Revolution, were fought between the Christian Hussites and the combined Christian Catholic forces of Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor, the Papacy and various European monarchs loyal to the Catholic Church, as well as among various Hussite factions themselves.  After initial clashes, the Utraquists changed sides in 1423 to fight alongside Roman Catholics and opposed the Taborites and other Hussite spinoffs.  These wars lasted from 1419 to approximately 1434.

DATE LAST EDITED:  09-2019 

802 - 036

The Lesser Crusades


Battle Of Vítkov Hill

After the death of his childless brother Wenceslaus, Sigismund inherited a claim on the Bohemian crown, though it was then, and remained till much later, in question whether Bohemia was a hereditary or an elective monarchy, especially as the line through which Sigismund claimed the throne had accepted that the Kingdom of Bohemia was an elective monarchy elected by the nobles, and thus the regent of the kingdom (Čeněk of Wartenberg) also explicitly stated that Sigismund had not been elected as reason for Sigismund’s claim to not be accepted.  

DATE LAST EDITED: 10-2019  

802 - 037

The Lesser Crusades

The Second Anti-Hussite Crusade

Internal troubles prevented the followers of Hus from fully capitalizing on their victory.  At Prague a demagogue, the priest Jan Želivský, for a time obtained almost unlimited authority over the lower classes of the townsmen; and at Tábor a religious communistic movement (that of the so-called Adamites) was sternly suppressed by Žižka.  Shortly afterwards a new crusade against the Hussites was undertaken.  A large German army entered Bohemia and in August 1421 laid siege to the town of Žatec.  After an unsuccessful attempt of storming the city, the crusaders retreated somewhat ingloriously on hearing that the Hussite troops were approaching.  Sigismund only arrived in Bohemia at the end of 1421.  He took possession of the town of Kutná Hora but was decisively defeated by Jan Žižka at the Battle of Deutschbrod.

DATE LAST EDITED:  10-2019 

802 - 038

The Lesser Crusades

 Bohemian Civil War

Bohemia was for a time free from foreign intervention, but internal discord again broke out, caused partly by theological strife and partly by the ambition of agitators.  On 9 March 1422, Jan Želivský was arrested by the town council of Prague and beheaded. There were troubles at Tábor also, where a more radical party opposed Žižka’s authority.

DATE LAST EDITED:  10-2019 

802 - 039

The Lesser Crusades


The Third Anti-Hussite Crusade

Jan Žižka leading troops of Radical Hussites, Jena Codex, 15th century Papal influence had meanwhile succeeded in calling forth a new crusade against Bohemia, but it resulted in complete failure.  In spite of the endeavors of their rulers, Poles and Lithuanians did not wish to attack the kindred Czechs; the Germans were prevented by internal discord from taking joint action against the Hussites; and the King of Denmark, who had landed in Germany with a large force intending to take part in the crusade, soon returned to his own country.  Free for a time from foreign threat, the Hussites invaded Moravia, where a large part of the population favored their creed; but, paralyzed again by dissensions, they soon returned to Bohemia.

DATE LAST EDITED:  10-2019 

802 - 040

The Lesser Crusades


The Fourth Anti-Hussite Crusade

In 1426 the Hussites were again attacked by foreign enemies.  In June 1426 Hussite forces, led by Prokop and Sigismund Korybut, significantly defeated the invaders.  Despite this result, the death of Jan Žižka caused many, including Pope Martin V, to believe that the Hussites were much weakened.  Martin proclaimed yet another crusade in 1427.  He appointed Cardinal Henry Beaufort of England as Papal Legate of Germany, Hungary, and Bohemia, to lead the crusader forces.  The crusaders were defeated at the Battle of Tachov.

DATE LAST EDITED:  10-2019 

802 - 041

The Lesser Crusades


The Fifth Anti-Hussite Crusade

On 1 August 1431 a large army of crusaders under Frederick I, Elector of Brandenburg, accompanied by Cardinal Cesarini as papal legate, crossed the Bohemian border.  

DATE LAST EDITED:  10-2019 

802 - 042

The Lesser Crusades


Reconquista

The Reconquista (Portuguese and Spanish for “reconquest”) was the period in the history of the Iberian Peninsula of about 780 years between the Umayyad conquest of Hispania in 711 and the fall of the Nasrid kingdom of Granada to the expanding Christian kingdoms in 1492.  The completed conquest of Granada was the context of the Spanish voyages of discovery and conquest (Columbus got royal support in Granada in 1492, months after its conquest), and the Americas — the “New World” — ushered in the era of the Spanish and Portuguese colonial empires.

DATE LAST EDITED:  10-2019 

802 - 043

The Lesser Crusades


Crusade Of Barbastro

The Crusade of Barbastro (also known as the Siege of Barbastro or War of Barbastro) was an international expedition, sanctioned by Pope Alexander II, to take the Spanish city of Barbastro, then part of the Hudid Emirate of Lārida.  A large army composed of elements from all over Western Europe took part in the siege and conquest of the city (1064).  The nature of the expedition, described by Ramón Menéndez Pidal as “a crusade before the crusades,” and the crusading element of the campaign is still a moot point.

DATE LAST EDITED:  10-2019 

802 - 044

The Lesser Crusades



Balearic Islands Expedition

In 1114, an   expedition to the Balearic Islands, then a Muslim taifa, was launched in the form of a Crusade. Founded on a treaty of 1113 between the Republic of Pisa and Ramon Berenguer III, Count of Barcelona, the expedition had the support of Pope Paschal II and the participation of many lords of Catalonia and Occitania, as well as contingents from northern and central Italy, Sardinia, and Corsica.  The Crusaders were perhaps inspired by the Norwegian king Sigurd I’s attack on Formentera in 1108 or 1109 during the Norwegian Crusade. The expedition ended in 1115 in the conquest of the Balearics, but only until the next year.  The main source for the event is the Pisan Liber Maiolichinus, completed by 1125.

DATE LAST EDITED:  10-2019 

802 - 045

The Lesser Crusades

Battle Of Las Navas de Tolosa

The Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa, known in Arab history as the Battle of Al-Uqab, took place on 16 July 1212 and was an important turning point in the Reconquista and in the medieval history of Spain.  The Christian forces of King Alfonso VIII of Castile were joined by the armies of his rivals, Sancho VII of Navarre, Peter II of Aragon and Afonso II omf Portugal, in battle against the Almohad Muslim rulers of the southern half of the Iberian Peninsula.  The Caliph al-Nasir (Miramamolín in the Spanish chronicles) led the Almohad army, made up of people from the whole Almohad empire.  Most of the men in the Almohad army came from the African side of the empire.

DATE LAST EDITED:  10-2019 

802 - 046

The Lesser Crusades

Wars Against Semigallians

(1219–90)

According to the Livonian Chronicle of Henry, Semigallians formed an alliance with bishop Albert of Riga against rebellious Livonians before 1203, and received military support to hold back Lithuanian attacks in 1205.  In 1207, the Semigallian duke Viestards (Latin: dux Semigallorum) helped the christened Livonian chief Caupo conquer back his Turaida castle from pagan rebels.

DATE LAST EDITED:  10-2019 

802 - 047

The Lesser Crusades 

War Against Saaremaa

(1206–61)

The last Estonian county to hold out against the invaders was the island country of Saaremaa (Ösel), whose war fleets had continued to raid Denmark and Sweden during the years of fighting against the German crusaders.

DATE LAST EDITED:  10-2019 

802 - 048

The Lesser Crusades

Crusades Against Christians

The Bosnian Crusade was fought against unspecified heretics from 1235 until 1241.  It was, essentially, a Hungarian war of conquest against the Banate of Bosnia sanctioned as a crusade.  Led by the Hungarian prince Coloman, the crusaders only succeeded in conquering peripheral parts of the country.  They were followed by Dominicans, who erected a cathedral and put heretics to death by burning.  The crusade came to an abrupt end when Hungary itself was invaded by Tatars.  The crusaders were forced to withdraw and engage their own invaders, most of them perishing, including Coloman.  Later popes called for more crusades against Bosnia, but none ever took place.  The failed crusade led to mistrust and hatred for Hungarians among the Bosnian population that lasted for centuries.

DATE LAST EDITED:  10-2019 

802 - 049

The Lesser Crusades

Albigensian Crusade

 

The Albigensian Crusade or the Cathar Crusade (1209–1229; French: Croisade des albigeois, Occitan: Crosada dels albigeses) was a 20-year military campaign initiated by Pope Innocent III to eliminate Catharism in Languedoc, in southern France.  The Crusade was prosecuted primarily by the French crown and promptly took on a political flavor, resulting in not only a significant reduction in the number of practicing Cathars, but also a realignment of the County of Toulouse in Languedoc, bringing it into the sphere of the French crown and diminishing the distinct regional culture and high level of influence of the Counts of Barcelona.

DATE LAST EDITED: 11-2019