801

801 - 001

The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin (Roman Catholic) Church in the medieval period.  

DATE LAST EDITED:  07-2019 

801 - 002

The First Crusade was the first of a number of crusades that attempted to recapture the Holy Land, called for by Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont in 1095.  Urban called for a military expedition to aid the Byzantine Empire, which had recently lost most of Anatolia to the Seljuq Turks.  

DATE LAST EDITED:  07-2019 

801 - 003

The second major crusade launched from Europe.  The Second Crusade was started in response to the fall of the County of Edessa in 1144 

Edessa Seen Here On The Right

Of The Map (c. 1140)

DATE LAST EDITED:  07-2019 

801 - 004

The Third Crusade was an attempt by European Christian leaders to reconquer the Holy Land following the capture of Jerusalem by the Ayyubid sultan, Saladin, in 1187.  

Richard the Lionheart marches 

towards Jerusalem (1850

DATE LAST EDITED:  07-2019 

801 - 005

The Fourth Crusade was a Latin Christian armed expedition called by Pope Innocent III.  The stated intent of the expedition was to recapture the Muslim-controlled city of Jerusalem.

Conquest of Constantinople by

the Crusaders in 1204

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801 - 006

The Fifth Crusade was an attempt by Western Europeans to reacquire Jerusalem and the rest of the Holy Land by first conquering the powerful Ayyubid state in Egypt.

Frisian crusaders confront the

Tower of Damietta, Egypt

DATE LAST EDITED:  07-2019 

801 - 007

The Sixth Crusade started in 1228 as an attempt to regain Jerusalem.  It began seven years after the failure of the Fifth Crusade and involved very little actual fighting.  The diplomatic maneuvering of the Holy Roman Emperor, Frederick II, resulted in the Kingdom of Jerusalem regaining some control over Jerusalem for much of the ensuing fifteen years (1229–39, 1241–44) as well as over other areas of the Holy Land.

Frederick II (left) meets al-Kamil (right)

DATE LAST EDITED:  07-2019 

801 - 008

The Seventh Crusade was a crusade led by Louis IX of France.  His troops were defeated by the Egyptian army led by the Ayyubid Sultan Turanshah supported by the Bahariyya Mamluks. 

Louis IX during the

Seventh Crusade

DATE LAST EDITED:  07-2019 

801 - 009

The Eighth Crusade was a crusade launched by Louis IX of France against the city of Tunis in 1270.  The Eighth Crusade is sometimes counted as the Seventh, if the Fifth and Sixth Crusades of Frederick II are counted as a single crusade.

Death of Louis IX during the

siege of Tunis

DATE LAST EDITED:  07-2019 

801 - 010

The Ninth Crusade, which is sometimes grouped with the Eighth Crusade, is commonly considered to be the last major medieval Crusade to the Holy Land.

Operations during the

Ninth  Crusade

DATE LAST EDITED:  07-2019 

801 - 011

The brief Alexandrian Crusade, also called the sack of Alexandria, occurred in October 1365 and was led by Peter I of Cyprus against Alexandria in Egypt.  

Fort in Alexandria, Egypt

DATE LAST EDITED:  07–2019