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Many religions of the ancient near East and their offshoots can be traced to Proto-Semitic religion. Other religions in the ancient Near East include Ancient Egyptian religion, the Luwain and Hittite religions of Asia Minor and the Sumerian religion of ancient Mesopotamia.
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Pre-Islamic religion in Arabia considered of indigenous polytheistic beliefs, Nestorian Christianity, Judaism and Zoroastrianism. Nestorian Christianity was the dominant religion in eastern Arabia prior to the advent of Islam. In the latter stages of the pre-Islamic era, Christianity gained converts with some unorthodox sects, such as the gnostics, having a presence.